2 x 2 ANOVA, within subjects variables


ds = dataset you are currently using.

DV = dependent variable of interest

IV = independent variable of interest


Subject = name of subject number column 

XYXY = dummy name for a variable, matrix, or data frame into which you are moving information.

Did you remember to turn your subjects into a factor?????

Command-wise, the explicit difference from between-subjects data is the need to tell R that it needs to account for the fact that the same people are used in each condition.


This information is conveyed through the inclusion of "+Error(subject(IV1*IV2))"


XYXY<-aov(DV ~ IV1 * IV2 + Error(Subject / (IV1*IV2)), data=ds)